`AND()`

Returns true if all the arguments are true, returns false otherwise.

Using `AND()`

, you can list out any number of criteria to evaluate. If they are *all* true, the function will return a 1 (true), and if not all are true, it will return a 0 (false).

The structure is as follows: `AND(logical 1, logical 2, logical 3, etc...)`

`OR()`

Returns true if any one of the arguments is true, returns false otherwise.

Using `OR()`

, you can list out any number of criteria to evaluate. If *any* of the values are true, the function will return a 1 (true), and if none of them are true, it will return a 0 (false).

The structure is as follows: `OR(logical 1, logical 2, logical 3, etc...)`

# Working with `AND()`

`AND()`

can be used on it's own as a standalone function, and it can also be used in conjunction with conditional statements.

As an example of using the function on it's own, let's write a formula to check if the following fields have a value in them:

- Status
- Project Owner
- Due Date

Regardless of what function you're using, you can reference a field name to see if it has anything entered in it. For example, to check if a {Status} field has a value, you can just write: IF({Status}....

AND(

{Status},

{Project Owner},

{Due Date

)

If all three fields have *any* value in them, the formula will return a 1, otherwise a 0.

Notice that only the first record has a value of `1`

because all three fields referenced in the formula have something entered in the field.

# Using `AND()`

with conditional statements

Taking the function a step further, let's see what it looks like to nest it within another statement. Using the same table structure, you have the following criteria:

- Projects that are assigned to Nathan
- And projects that are in progress
- Should show the message, "Nathan - Active"

Using `AND()`

, here is the formula you would write:

```
IF(
AND(
{Project Owner} = "Nathan Anderson",
Status = "In Progress"
),
"Nathan - Active"
)
```

Let's change the criteria to look for the following:

- For projects that are not started
- And projects without a project owner
- Show a message, "Needs Owner"
- Otherwise, show "Next in Queue"

Here’s the formula:

```
IF(
AND(
{Status} = "Not Started",
{Project Owner}
),
"Next in Queue",
"Needs Owner"
)
```

And here’s the result:

Let's build in some more complex conditions using `AND()`

:

- For projects that are not started
- And projects with a project owner
- Show a message, "Next in Queue"
- Otherwise, show "Needs Owner"
- And for projects in progress, show "Due Soon"
- Otherwise, for complete projects show "Complete"

Here’s the formula:

```
IF(
AND(
{Status} = "Not Started",
{Project Owner}
),
"Next in Queue",
IF(
AND(
{Status} = "Not Started",
{Project Owner}=BLANK()
),
"Needs Owner",
IF(
AND(
{Status} = "In Progress",
{Due Date}
),
"Due soon",
"Complete"
)
)
)
```

And the result:

NOTE

The formula above is not complete, as it doesn't account for all potential scenarios when some of the field values are empty. It's only meant to show a portion of the various `AND()`

functions and their usage.

# Working with `OR()`

The `OR()`

function can also be used alone, or in combination with other functions.

Remember that when used by itself, `OR()`

produces either a `1`

or a `0`

depending if *any* of the criteria listed in the statement are true. For example, `OR(5+5=10, 5+5=12)`

will evaluate as `1`

(true), because one of the statements is true.

As an example, you want to display a message depending on the quantity of available items you have in stock. Let's start with the function by itself:

```
OR(
{Status} = "Out of Stock",
{Status} = "Delayed Backorder"
)
```

Here’s the result:

# Using `OR()`

with conditional statements

Building on the previous section, you may now want to display a message depending on if the result is a 1 or 0. You want to show "Available for purchase" if the item is in stock, or "Currently unavailable" if it is out of stock or on delayed backorder.

```
IF(
OR(
{Status} = "Out of Stock",
{Status} = "Phased Out"
),
"Currently unavailable",
"Available for purchase"
)
```

Here is the example result for that formula:

# Combining `AND()`

+ `OR()`

Here’s an example of combining `AND()`

and `OR()`

together.

```
IF(
Status = "In Stock",
"Available for purchase",
IF(
AND(
Status = "Out of Stock",
{Re-order}
),
"Check back soon for availability",
IF(
OR(
Status = "Phased Out",
Status = "Recalled"
),
"No longer selling this product",
"Unavailable for purchase"
)
)
)
```

And here’s the result you can expect:

### Formula Foundations

This article is part of a guided course that helps you learn how to use Airtable formulas.

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